星明天文台成员,PSP公众超新星项目管理员,埃格•威尔逊奖获得者,C/2015 F5 斯万-星明彗星发现者,中国首颗银河系新星发现者


Comets did not become routinely named for their discoverers until the 20th century.  In the 19th century, names were generally used for short-period comets only after their second apparition; single-apparition short-period comets and long-period comets were generally referred to by designations (with names sometimes, though not with much consistency, given parenthetically).  
In recent years, the comet-naming process has been impacted by several wide-field CCD s urveys conducted by professional teams.  It is therefore appropriate to write down guidelines for the naming of comets to make the process as simple and fair as possible.  Though guidelines have been drafted previously by IAU Commission 20 members in recent years, this aims to replace those guidelines by starting anew, by creating guidelines that are even simpler and more fair.  These guidelines may need to be revised by the CBAT and CSBN, as special circumstances warrant.    
 The CBAT works closely with the Minor Planet Center (MPC) in many cases regarding the astrometry, identifications, orbit computing, and collection of observations.  In recent practice, comet names are announced on IAU Circulars after a reasonable orbit has been determined, in an effort to prevent re-naming of lost comets.  The CBAT consults with the CSBN on non-routine naming matters, in which some interpretation of the following guidelines is deemed appropriate.    

Guideline 1:  Regarding proper reporting of discoveries.

 1.1  Comets normally receive their names on the basis of information  available to the CBAT at the time of first official announcement       of the discovery.  The discovery observation (and thus the       discoverer) is taken to be that which permits the CBAT to issue       reasonable requests for confirming observations (directly to       individual observers or sometimes via “The NEO Confirmation Page”     at the CBAT/MPC website) or to issue an announcement Circular.
1.1  彗星命名通常在CBAT基于有效的观测数据并公布通告时获得,发现数据(发现者信息)来自经CBAT认可并被确认的信息(个别发现者或NEO证实网页或CBAT、MPC网页)或已发布的告。   
 1.2  Comets are generally considered no longer available for additional recognized discovery claims once the call for confirmation has been       widely issued (e.g., e-mail or World Wide Web posting) by the  CBAT or MPC.       
 1.2 彗星命名原则上不再接受其它以前曾被CBAT或MPC认可且被广泛传播(如e-mail或万维网)的申请要求       
 1.3  Independent discoveries of a comet that are reported to theCBAT after the issuance of the announcement IAUC are usually not considered in the naming process, unless:       
 1.3 在IAUC公告发布后上报给CBAT的个别彗星申请不予承认,除非:         
 (a) it can be shown unambiguously that the discovery claim in question was made before any  outside knowledge couldhave been available to the claimant; and         
 (a) 有确凿证据表明对现有的彗星命名有效的。         
 (b) that the comet has not yet been named; and         
 (b) 该彗星未被命名的。         
 (c) there are not already more than two names to be given  to the comet in question.         
 (c) 该彗星已经命名为单一发现者名的。    
 1.4  The time of comet discovery is taken to be the time of the first  detection visually or the time that the image was taken upon which   the discovery was made.    
 1.4 彗星的发现时间为首先对发现目标进行彗样描述的时间或能明确显示彗星特征图片拍摄时间。  

Guideline 2:  Regarding discoverers.

 2.1  Comets are to be named for their individual discoverer(s) if at all  possible.  This means using the last (family) name of the discoverer(s).    
 2.1  彗星尽可能以发现者的姓命名。
2.2  Sometimes, however, team names are more appropriate.
 2.2  彗星命名为团队名称也是可行的。                                   
 (a) A discoverer is defined here as the person(s) who first detect(s) the comet (visually, or on a photograph   or electronic image).  He or she is responsible for obtaining and communicating to the CBAT(possibly via a responsible third party)accurate information on the comet’s positions   and physical appearance.         
 (a) 上述所说的发现者为第一个发现彗星目标(目视或照相图片或CCD图片)并负责向CBAT(或经由第三方权威机构)上报彗星的精确位置及物理特征的人。         
 (b) Although past comets have borne the names of three (and, on rare occasions, more) discoverers, it is preferable to keep the limit to two names if at all possible; more than  three names  are  to be  avoided  except in rare cases where named lost comets are identified with a rediscovery that has already received a new name.          
 (b) 虽然过去彗星曾以三人(甚至更多人)命名,但现在尽可能最多以二人命名,避免三人以上的命名,除非命名的彗星随后被确认是已经被命名但已丢失很久的历史彗星的再次发现。         (c) When there are two (or more) independent discoveries of a comet,         
 (c) 当一颗彗星有二个(或以上)发现者,                
 (1) the discoverers’ (or their teams’) names  are to  be listed in  the chronological order in which each  discoverer  (or team)   found the comet;             
 (1) 以发现者的发现时间排序,                
 (2) each individual name is to be separated by a hyphen  (but family surnames with two or more words separated  by either spaces or hyphens are to be distinguished  in comet names by single spaces only between each surn word — although, for simplicity, the discoverer shall   in such cases also be given the option to choose one  main word from his or her name to represent the surname on the comet, with such choosing strongly encouraged), and                 
 (2)每位发现者名用“-” 分隔开。(如发现者姓氏为多个……,发现者尽可能使用最主要的姓氏)                                                         
 (3) there is to be no more than one name on that comet from a single observing location or program  (excepting  the possibility of lost comets being rediscovered, as noted in Guideline 5, below).                 
 (d) Observers and observing programs (or their representatives) cannot require the IAU to use any specific name.  The final  naming process is the sole discretion of the CBAT and the CSBN in accordance with these guidelines.For observing programs consisting of more than two people, the established team/program name will generally be used for the comet name   unless Guideline 3.4(a)(2), below, is satisfied.         
 (d) 发现者和发现团队(或代表)不能用各种专用名称向IAU申请彗星命名。命名工作由CBAT及CSBN根据本规则全权处理。由于发现团队多在二人以上,用于申请的命名应该适用于彗星命名,3.4(a)(2情况除外。    
 2.3  Occasionally a very bright comet (usually near the sun) suddenly  becomes visible to many observers worldwide nearly simultaneously       as a naked-eye object.  In some of these situations, comets do not      receive the name(s) of any discoverer(s) but rather a “generic” name       such as “Great Comet” or “Eclipse Comet”.    
 2.3  偶尔一颗明亮的彗星(常位于太阳附近)突然增亮,几乎同时被全球观测者用肉眼观测到,彗星命名不接收任何发现者的申请,而改用一般的命名,如“大彗星”、“南天彗星”等。 
[Examples:  C/1997 J2 (Meunier-Dupouy), 57P/du Toit-Neujmin-Delporte,             76P/West-Kohoutek-Ikemura, 105P/Singer Brewster,             C/1882 R1 (Great September Comet), C/1910 A1 (Great January            Comet), C/1947 X1 (Southern Comet), C/1948 V1 (Eclipse Comet)]               
Guideline 3:  Regarding teams of discoverers.

 3.1  Nowadays, there are very frequently teams of professional, and even     amateur, astronomers (as opposed to individuals) who find comets in  the course of their observing.  It is required and presumed that  full and truthful details concerning discovery circumstances from       teams of discoverers will be given in the initial discovery report.
3.1 当今,经常有观测团队的专业人员,甚至普通天文爱好者和天文学家(个人)在观测时发现彗星,这些详细真实的情况应在第一次上报发现时注明 。  
 3.2  Since most discoveries involve teamwork (in the broad sense that confirmation and necessary orbit work is general done by people not  
 even at the same location as the discoverer), a team is here more  narrowly defined as a group of astronomers who are formally organized    with certain instrumentation to seek and find celestial objects   including comets.
3.2 很多发现需要发挥团队协作能力(从广义来说,未知天体的确认及必要的轨道计算需要由不同观测位置的观测者来完成),此时,观测团队要说明异地观测者是在其组织协作下使用设备观测天体目标,包括彗星。    
 3.3  If an acceptable one-word team name (including an acronym for a longer team name that is acceptable to the CSBN) is submitted for the  observing program, this name can be used for the comet.
 3.3 如果发现团队上报的名称为一个单词(包括CSBN接受的缩写词),这样的命名可以用于彗星命名。    
 3.4  If there is no team name, either the comet shall be named for the   person who actually found the comet or the comet may receive no       name at all.
3.4  如果观测团队没有名称,彗星可以命名团队中第一发现者或者不与命名。         
 (a) Individual names of team members.
 (a)  团队中的发现者名。                
 (1) In no case shall a comet contain the name of more than two people from the same observing program.  If there is   no other independent discovery, it is acceptable to have the names of two people from the same program on a comet,   if and only if:  
 (1) 彗星不能以同一团队中的二位发现者命名。如果没有其他的发现者,该彗星可以同一团队中的二们发现者命名,如果,仅是如果:                      
 (A) there are only two team members,
(A) 团队只有二位观测者,                      
 (B) both were directly involved in the discovery (that is, involved in making the discovery observation and/or first identifying the comet’s image), and
 (B) 二位观测者都参与彗星的发现(二人在发现中不可或缺…)                      
 (C) their last (family) names are not identical.
 (C) 二位发现者为不同姓氏。                
 (2) If a team (with more than two members) supplies  satisfactory written testimony that a single team observer did the work to find the comet  and note its cometary acty, measure its position and magnitude(or monitor an automatic computer program that does so), and report this information, then it is acceptable for  a comet so discovered by a team program to have that  single individual’s name on the comet instead of
the program name.
 (2) 如果发现团队(二人以上)提供符合要求的书面材料说明是由单个致力于发现工作团队成员发现及观测到彗星的特征,并测量(或由计算机完成)上报数据,那么彗星可以该成员命名代替团队名称。                
 (3) The same name is not to be used twice on the same   comet, even if two discoverers share the same last name.
 (3) 二位相同姓氏的发现者命名同一颗彗星时姓氏只能使用一次。         
 (b) Comets that are discovered from data or images made public through printed publication or electronic posting (e.g., Wold Wide Web) are 
not eligible for individual names of  people and generally will not be named unless there is  an established program name for the origin of the
images.   Such discoverers are considered members of the “team”.
 (b) 从已经公布的数据或图片上发现彗星的个人,无权命名该彗星,这样的发现者只能被认为是对数据或图片享有版权的观测团队成员。  
[Examples:  C/1977 V1 (Tsuchinshan), C/1997 B3 (SOHO), C/1999 S4 (LINEAR),             C/1999 T1 (McNaught-Hartley), P/2000 C1 (Hergenrother),             P/2000 Y3 (Scotti), C/1992 U1 (Shoemaker)]   
Guideline 4:  Regarding cometary nature that is not immediately noticed.
 4.1  It frequently happens that a comet is found by (a) discoverer(s) — whether a single individual, two individuals working together,    or a team — who cannot detect cometary activity with the equipment   that he/she/they possess.  Such an object may therefore be assumed       to be a minor planet and so designated when two or more nights’    worth of observations are available to the Minor Planet Center (or       posted, for example — prior to being designated — on the MPC’s NEO  Confirmation webpage, if unusual motion is detected).
4.1  经常发生一颗彗星被发现者(无论是单个人、二人协作或观测团队)发现,但以他她他们的现有设备当时没有察觉到彗星特征。这样的目标在有二晚或更多晚数据后被MPC认为是小行星目标并编号(或因轨道特殊而公告于NEO确认页)。    
 4.2  If an observer (whether an individual or a team) who is not the  original discoverer of the “minor planet” finds that an “asteroidal”  object has a cometary appearance, and if such cometary appearance is    confirmed, both the original discoverer of the “minor planet” and the       identifier of the cometary nature may be credited in the name of the  comet, subject to the following prerequisites:
4.2  如果与认为是小行星目标上报的发现者不同的观测者发现该目标的彗星特征,假如在这种情况下,以小行星上报的发现者及观测到彗星特征的发现者二者命名彗星,但要满足下条件:         
 (a)  This dual recognition in the name will occur only when  there has been no prior suspicion of the unusual nature of the    object; if the object was listed on the “NEO Confirmation Page”   or had an unusual orbit published prior to identification of      cometary appearance, the identifier of the cometary nature will not be eligible for inclusion in the name.
(a)  当该目标天体事先未发现轨道的反常,即如果该目标已经被公示在NEO确认页或在发现彗星特征之前已经发现目标轨道的异常,彗星特征发现者无权命名彗星。         
 (b)  If no prior suspicion of unusual nature is suspected, the  name of the newly recognized comet can consist of two parts:     one part derived from the name of the original discoverer of the “minor planet”, and the other part derived from the name of the discoverer of the cometary nature.  EACH PART of the name  would, however, be subject to the following conditions:
(b)  如果事先确实未发现目标轨道异常,那么彗星的命名分为二部分:一部分是发现“小行星”者,另一部分是发现该目标的彗星特征者,但每部分须符合以下条件:                 
 (1) Only one name (either individual or team) is  permitted.  If the “minor planet” was credited jointly to two individuals, only one of these names can be used.
 (1) 只有一个名字(个人或团队)能用于命名。如果“小行星”有二位发现者,只能取其一。                 
 (2) If the original discoverer of the “minor planet” is a team, the team cannot suggest that an individual  team-member’s name be used.
(2) 如果“小行星”发现者是观测团队,不能以团队成员的姓氏命名。    
 4.3  If follow-up observations performed by (an) observer(s) other  than the original discoverer of a reportedly “asteroidal” object show  the object to be a comet (that is, showing a coma and/or tail),       — and the provisos of 4.2 do not apply — the comet may   receive a single name of the
original discoverer (individual or team).
 4.3  如果该小行星目标被别的观测者后续观测到,但最后仍由“小行星”最初发现者确认彗星特征(看到弥散或彗尾)-不符合4.2条件-,那么该彗星以最初发现者(个人或团队)命名。    4.4 If the minor-planet designation was published before the realization  is made that the object is a comet, the comet will retain the       minor-planet designation.  Otherwise, a new comet designation will    be assigned.
 4.4  如果该目标在被指定了小行星临时编号以后再确认是彗星,该彗星保留小行星编号。否则,重新设定彗星编号。    
 4.5  If the object receives a permanent minor-planet number prior to itsrecognition as a comet, it shall be accorded “dual status”.  As such,       it both retains the permanent minor-planet number and receives a new  periodic-comet number.
 4.5  如果该目标已经指定了小行星永久编号后又发现其彗星特征,彗星为双编号,即小行星永久编号和周期彗星编号。         
 (a) If the numbered “minor planet” has already received a name, the  comet should inherit this name. 
 (a) 如果该“小行星”已经被命名,那么彗星延用“小行星”命名。         
 (b) If the “minor planet” has not yet received a name, a new name for   the comet will be assigned according to these guidelines.  The same   
 new name will also be used for the “minor-planet” numbering, noting   that minor-planet names must be unique.
 (b) 如果“小行星”未被命名,那么彗星命名适合本规则,该彗星命名也即是该“小行星”的命名。 
[Examples:  P/1997 B1 (Kobayashi), P/1999 DN3 (Korlevic-Juric),             C/2000 WM1 (LINEAR); 95P = (2060) Chiron,             107P = (4015) Wilson-Harrington, 133P = (7968) Elst-Pizarro;             P/2001 BB50 (LINEAR-NEAT)]   
Guideline 5:  Regarding changes in comet names.

 5.1  The CBAT/CSBN has the option occasionally, in the interest    of fairness and/or simplicity, to change the name of a rediscovered       lost comet or in other complicated cases involving comet names (such as names found later to be spelled incorrectly or be missin diacritical marks, etc.).  However, such changes will be made only       rarely.
 5.1 CBAT/CSBN对一些丢失后又重新发现的彗星有更改命名或对涉及彗星命名时的复杂情况(命名拼写错误或符号缺少等)的处置权力,虽然这种情况很少发生。    
 5.2  Numerous one- or multi-apparition short-period comets remain lost  due to highly uncertain orbital elements (from poor sets of observations).  Sometimes such “lost” comets are rediscovered, and  occasionally the identification of the past apparition(s) is not made  until after a new name is assigned; though efforts are made to search   for identifications before naming of a new comet is made, this is not always immedia-tely possible, in practice.
 5.2 很多短周期彗星由于其轨道高度不确定性(观测数据的缺少)现仍处于丢失状态。有时那样的丢失彗星被重新发现,也偶而命名了一颗新彗星后暂时不能及时和以前的观测数据对应,彗星命名前会努力寻找过去对应的观测数据,但在实际操作中很难立见成效的。         
 (a) Comet names are generally announced on IAU Circulars by the  CBAT at the time of publication of a first set of orbital elements.   The hope is to maintain stability by preventing previously observed  comets (particularly lost comets) from getting new names.
 (b) Occasionally this is not possible, and when a lost comet has been  given a new name(s) before it is shown to be the same comet, the     
 new name(s) is (are) to be added to the original name(s). 
 (b) 但有时是不现实的,当彗星命名后发现彗星原来是一颗丢失的彗星,新命名会被添加到原命名中。    
 5.3  New comets later identified with observations of “asteroidal”  objects (or previously unidentified cometary images) in previous     months or years do not get names added due to such findings after   the initial comet name is published.
 5.3 新彗星命名后发现该彗星与前几个月或前几年的“小行星”目标(或未确认的彗星目标)的观测数据相对应,但该目标未被命名,新命名将会延用。    
 5.4  Prior to the publication of a name for a new comet, if the comet       can be identified with an object reported as asteroidal at the same       apparition on two or more nights by a single or team discoverer,       so that a minor-planet designation has already been given, it can       also have a name for that individual or team discoverer added,    provided that there is only one other name for the comet (for a    total of two names).
 5.4 新彗星命名公布后,如果该彗星与之前由同一发现者或发现团队上报了二晚以上小行星目标观测数据相对应,且小行星已获得临时编号,那么该发现者或团队将被添加入彗星命名中,条件是该彗星命名只有单一的命名(因命名最多有两个名称)    
 5.5  Also in the stated interest of simplicity, comet names will not    be changed by adding numerals after names (where multiple comets        carry the same discoverers’ names), as was done during much       of the twentieth century, as this merely complicates matters.       Officially, there is no need to retain numerals on short-period     comets that have routinely carried them in the past, because the robust designation system obviates their necessity and because     the historical facts belie any logic associated with using numerals      (different numerals were used in different places, and there are  gaps in the numerals used even recently).
[Examples:  C/1955 N1 (Bakharev-Macfarlane-Krienke),             C/1980 O1 (Cernis-Petrauskas), C/1997 L1 (Zhu-Balam),             2P/Encke, 27P/Crommelin, 97P/Metcalf-Brewington,             146P/Shoemaker-LINEAR]   
Guideline 6:  Regarding unnamed comets.

 6.1  The CSBN and CBAT reserve the right to delay naming, possibly  indefinitely.  Reasons for such delay may include:
6.1 CSBN和CBAT有无限期推迟彗星命名的权力,原因可能包括:         
 (a) A comet is found months or years after observation and   is no longer observable.  Exceptions have been made in      connection with team names for sungrazing comets observed by   space-based coronagraphs.
(a)  一颗彗星被观测数月或数年后消失。除了被空间探测器日冕仪观测到的掠日彗星,可以所属团队命名。         
 (b) A comet’s orbit is not determinable due to poor observations  or short arc of observation; in such cases, an object will     usually be given an “X/” designation.
(b) 由于有限的观测数据或极短的轨道观测弧度而造成轨道的不确定性。这种情况下,通常给予“X/”编号。         
 (c) There is no agreement among team members for (an) observing  program(s) claiming the discovery.
 (c) 申请命名的观测团队成员之间没有统一意见。 
[Examples:  C/1931 AN, C/1996 R3, C/1997 K2,             P/1997 T3 (Lagerkvist-Carsenty), C/2001 HT_50 (LINEAR-NEAT)]