巡天猎手-孙国佑

星明天文台成员,PSP公众超新星项目管理员,埃格•威尔逊奖获得者,C/2015 F5 斯万-星明彗星发现者,中国首颗银河系新星发现者

彗星族群分类

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作者:孙国佑

彗星的轨道有椭圆、抛物线、双曲线三种。 椭圆轨道的彗星又叫周期彗星,另两种轨道的又叫非周期彗星。周期彗星又分为短周期彗星和长周期彗星。

短周期彗星

短周期彗星被认为起源于古柏带,也就是距离太阳35天文单位至1000天文单位的范围内,也有些是长周期彗星受到引力的摄动而成为短周期彗星。它们的轨道在这个广阔的范围内通常是稳定的,但是外侧行星的引力偶尔会干扰它们,使它们的轨道成为接近太阳的高离心率椭圆轨道,不过这种情况很难预测。而且由于它们的低反射率,光学望远镜也难以提早观测到。不过,当彗星进入太阳系的内侧被加热后,喷发出来的气体和尘埃形成包围着核心的彗发,使它们的体积扩张而很容易被侦测到。

短周期彗星的轨道周期通常是数年至数十年(上限为200年)。它们主要有两个家族:周期短于20年的是木星族,周期在20年至200年的是哈雷族。它们的轨道通常黄道的上下,并且运行方向与行星相同。它们轨道的远日点通常在外行星的区域(木星和超越其外);例如,哈雷彗星的远日点就在海王星之外不远处。彗星轨道的远日点靠近哪一颗行星,它就是该行星的彗星”家庭”,分别有木星族,土星族、天王星族、海王星族、冥王星族以及冥外彗星族。

主要分类

恩克族彗星
周期最短的极端,恩克彗星的轨道不会抵达木星的轨道,并且称为恩克族彗星。其近日点和远日点分别为 0.3380AU和4.0937AU,离心率0.8474,周期3.2984年,是所有彗星中最短的,亮度微弱,凝聚度较小,一般不产生彗尾。

木星族彗星
短周期彗星中,周期短于20年和低倾角(不超过30度)的被称为木星族彗星。

哈雷族彗星
像哈雷彗星的,轨道周期在20至200年之间,轨道倾角从0至超过90度的,称为哈雷族彗。(本站长发现的C/2015 F5彗星就属于哈雷族彗星。)

达摩克族彗星(同属彗星,小行星)
其前身疑为哈雷彗星彗核,它们的外观呈小行星状,运行轨道象彗星,近日点在火星的轨道附近,而远日点在天王星的附近。达摩克型小行星以5335号小行星Damocles为代表,它们在如彗星一般的扁长轨道上运行,但却没有被观测到任何彗星特征。科学家们认为它们是耗尽了挥发物质的彗核。有不少长周期彗星是被发现后一段时间才从达摩克型小行星“升级”成彗星的。 典型代表达摩克族彗星小行星2013 UQ4。

喀戎族彗星(同属彗星,小行星)
半人马小行星(Centaurs)是指一类绕日轨道在木星和海王星之间的冰冻小行星,并以希腊神话中的半人马神,即奥林匹克之父,也是大力士海格利斯之师──仙托(Centaur)为名。中文一般将该类小行星称为半人马小行星,也叫仙托小行星。第一颗半人马小行星──喀戎(2060 Chiron)于发现时在接近近日点出现了彗发(coma),虽然其体积远大于 典型的彗星而且一直有争议,在天文学上目前却将之同时归类为彗星(95/P 喀戎)及小行星。如果一颗天体的半长轴介于木星和海王星之间,就会被归类为半人马小行星。 半人马小行星具有彗星特征的称为喀戎族彗星。

主带彗星
主带彗星形成一个独立的类别。不同于多数彗星的轨道多半在接近木星或距离太阳更遥远的距离上,主带彗星的轨道接近圆形,并且在小行星带的主带内,因此很难从轨道上的特征与许多标准的小行星区分出来。即使有一些 短周期彗星的轨道半长轴在木星轨道之内,和主带彗星仍有所不同,因为主带彗星的离心率和轨道倾角都与主带内的小行星相似。最初知道的三颗主带彗星轨道都在主带外缘的内侧。


长周期彗星

长周期彗星有较高的离心率轨道和范围从200年至数千乃至百万年的周期。

掠日彗星族
克鲁兹族彗星(Kreutz Sungrazers),其近日点极接近太阳是它们轨道的特性之一。它们相信全来自多年前一颗大彗星分裂而成的碎片,而德国天文学家克鲁兹首先注意到这些彗星的共通点,因此被称为“ 克鲁兹族彗星”。不少克鲁兹族彗星的成员均为历史上出现的大彗星,白天在太阳隔邻也能看到。对上一颗大彗 星是1965年出现的池谷·关彗星,是20世纪中最亮的彗星之一。克鲁兹族也是发现最多的彗星族群,这得益于SOHO探测器的升空,20年间已经发现了3000多颗克鲁兹族彗星。

除此之外还有SOHO太空探测器还发现了科里切特族(Kracht)、科里切特2A族、马斯登族(Marsden)及迈耶族(Meyer)等新的掠日彗星种族。当中马斯登族及科里切特族或与96P周期彗星——梅克贺兹一号彗星存在着莫大关系,该彗星也可能是象限仪座流星雨及白羊座流星雨的母体 彗星。

非周期彗星

双曲线彗星
双曲线轨道彗星(也就是无周期彗星),但都未超过被木星摄动而被加速的可能范围。如果彗星充斥在星际空间内,它们的移动速度应该与临近太阳的恒星有着相同数量级的相对速度(每秒数十公里的速度)。如果这样的天体进入太阳系,它们应该有正值的特殊轨道能量,并将真正的观测到有着双曲线轨道。

极特殊类型

星际彗星
目前只发现了一颗星际彗星,2019年8月30日由乌克兰业余天文学家根纳迪·鲍里索夫发现的C/2019 Q4后更名为2l/Borisov。这也是人类发现的第二颗星际物体。

周期彗星表

编号/名称译名离心率轨道倾角近日点远日点轨道周期轨道分类
1P/Halley哈雷彗星0.9671162.30.58635.0875.32哈雷族
2P/Encke恩克彗星0.848311.780.33614.0943.297恩克族
3D/Biela比拉彗星0.751313.220.87916.196.646木星族
4P/Faye法叶彗星0.56929.0581.6546.0257.523木星族
5D/Brorsen布罗森彗星0.809829.380.58985.6125.461木星族
6P/d’Arrest德亚瑞司特彗星0.611419.481.3615.6466.558木星族
7P/Pons-Winnecke庞士-温尼克彗星0.637622.331.2395.5996.323木星族
8P/Tuttle塔特尔彗星0.819854.981.02710.3713.61木星族
9P/Tempel坦普尔1号彗星0.510210.481.5414.7495.578木星族
10P/Tempel坦普尔2号彗星0.537312.031.4184.715.363木星族
11P/Tempel-Swift-LINEAR坦普尔-斯威夫特-林尼尔彗星0.546213.571.5485.2776.304木星族
12P/Pons-Brooks庞士-布鲁克斯彗星0.954874.180.773733.4770.85哈雷族
13P/Olbers奥伯斯彗星0.930344.611.17832.6469.52哈雷族
14P/Wolf沃夫彗星0.355627.912.7415.7668.773木星族
15P/Finlay芬利彗星0.72026.7990.97595.9996.513木星族
16P/Brooks布鲁克斯彗星0.56324.2611.4675.256.154木星族
17P/Holmes霍姆斯彗星0.431719.092.0575.1836.889木星族
18D/Perrine-Mrkos珀赖因-姆尔科斯彗星0.642617.761.2725.8476.716木星族
19P/Borrelly包瑞利彗星0.625530.371.3495.8566.838木星族
20D/Westphal韦士伐彗星0.919840.891.25430.0361.87哈雷族
21P/Giacobini-Zinner贾可比尼-秦诺彗星0.706831.911.03166.592木星族
22P/Kopff卡普夫彗星0.54774.7371.5585.3326.395木星族
23P/Brorsen-Metcalf布罗森–梅特卡夫彗星0.97219.330.478833.6670.52哈雷族
24P/Schaumasse萧马斯彗星0.704811.751.2056.9598.247木星族
25D/Neujmin诺伊明2号彗星0.566810.641.3384.845.43木星族
26P/Grigg-Skjellerup葛里格-斯杰勒鲁普彗星0.640322.431.0854.9495.24木星族
27P/Crommelin克罗玛林彗星0.91928.970.748317.7228.07哈雷族
28P/Neujmin诺伊明1号彗星0.775414.191.55212.2718.17木星族
29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann施瓦斯曼-瓦赫曼1号彗星0.041679.3775.7616.26214.74木星族
30P/Reinmuth雷睦斯1号彗星0.50128.1231.8835.6687.336木星族
31P/Schwassmann-Wachmann施瓦斯曼-瓦赫曼2号彗星0.19394.5473.4235.078.751木星族
32P/Comas Sola科马斯·索拉彗星0.55629.972.0017.0159.572木星族
33P/Daniel丹尼尔彗星0.46222.372.175.8958.097木星族
34D/Gale盖尔彗星0.760711.731.1838.70411木星族
35P/Herschel-Rigollet赫歇尔-利哥莱彗星0.97464.210.748556.94155哈雷族
36P/Whipple惠普彗星0.26179.9273.0725.2518.49木星族
37P/Forbes福布斯彗星0.54068.9551.5785.2926.367木星族
38P/Stephan-Oterma史蒂芬-奥特玛彗星0.8617.981.57420.9237.72哈雷族
39P/Oterma奥特玛彗星0.24551.9435.4719.03219.53喀戎族
40P/V?is?l?维萨拉1号彗星0.631611.491.828.05910.98木星族
41P/Tuttle-Giacobini-Kresák塔特尔-贾可比尼-克雷萨克彗星0.66049.2281.0485.1235.42木星族
42P/Neujmin诺伊明3号彗星0.58423.9842.0287.72610.77木星族
43P/Wolf-Harrington沃夫-哈灵顿彗星0.594715.971.3585.3416.129木星族
44P/Reinmuth雷睦斯2号彗星0.42655.8962.1195.277.101木星族
45P/Honda-Mrkos-Pajdu?áková本田-姆尔科斯-帕伊杜莎科娃彗星0.82474.2520.52985.5135.252木星族
46P/Wirtanen韦坦伦彗星0.659211.761.0525.1235.426木星族
47P/Ashbrook-Jackson阿什布鲁克-杰克逊彗星0.316713.032.8175.4288.371木星族
48P/Johnson詹森彗星0.425213.062.035.0336.637木星族
49P/Arend-Rigaux阿朗–里戈彗星0.600319.061.4265.7076.736木星族
50P/Arend阿朗彗星0.530419.141.9196.2528.258木星族
51P/Harrington哈灵顿彗星0.54245.4241.75.7297.159木星族
51P-A/Harrington0.56228.6571.5685.5966.78木星族
51P-D/Harrington0.54255.4251.6995.7297.159木星族
52P/Harrington-Abell哈灵顿-阿贝尔彗星0.540410.231.7735.9437.578木星族
53P/Van Biesbroeck冯比斯布罗克彗星0.55146.6082.4288.39612.59木星族
54P/de Vico-Swift-NEAT德威科-斯威夫特-尼特彗星0.4276.0672.1725.4097.38木星族
55P/Tempel-Tuttle坦普尔-塔特尔彗星0.9056162.50.976419.733.24哈雷族
56P/Slaughter-Burnham斯洛特尔-伯纳姆彗星0.50378.1562.5357.6811.54木星族
57P/du Toit-Neujmin-Delporte杜图瓦-诺伊明-德尔波特彗星0.49922.8481.7295.1766.415木星族
57P-A/du Toit-Neujmin-Delporte0.4992.8451.7295.1756.414木星族
58P/Jackson-Neujmin杰克逊-诺伊明彗星0.661513.481.3816.788.242木星族
59P/Kearns-Kwee0.47549.342.3556.6249.514木星族
60P/Tsuchinshan紫金山2号彗星0.53843.6111.6185.3936.564木星族
61P/Shajn-Schaldach沙因-沙尔达克彗星0.42586.0062.1145.2497.064木星族
62P/Tsuchinshan紫金山1号彗星0.57810.51.4895.5686.629木星族
63P/Wild威尔德1号彗星0.650919.781.9519.22513.21木星族
64P/Swift-Gehrels斯威夫特-盖勒尔斯彗星0.68978.951.3777.59.351木星族
65P/Gunn甘恩彗星0.25629.1662.8964.8917.683木星族
66P/du Toit杜图瓦彗星0.787718.71.27410.7314.71木星族
67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko丘留莫夫-格拉西缅科彗星0.64097.041.2435.6816.442木星族
68P/Klemola克莱默拉彗星0.640711.141.7598.03210.83木星族
69P/Taylor泰勒彗星0.414522.052.2735.497.648木星族
70P/Kojima小岛彗星0.45396.62.0075.3427.043木星族
71P/Clark克拉克彗星0.49829.481.5694.6855.53木星族
72P/Denning-Fujikawa丹宁-藤川彗星0.81929.1690.78427.8889.029木星族
73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann施瓦斯曼-瓦赫曼3号彗星0.694811.420.93285.185.344木星族
73P-B/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.693311.40.93915.1855.358木星族
73P-C/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.692211.380.94295.1845.362木星族
73P-E/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.693911.410.93745.1875.359木星族
73P-G/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.693411.390.93925.1885.362木星族
73P-H/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.693611.390.93925.195.366木星族
73P-J/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.691511.380.9395.1495.312木星族
73P-K/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.693511.390.93915.195.364木星族
73P-L/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.694711.40.93915.2145.396木星族
73P-M/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.693911.390.93915.1985.375木星族
73P-N/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.692311.380.93935.1665.333木星族
73P-P/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.695611.410.93925.2315.419木星族
73P-Q/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.698611.420.93975.2975.507木星族
73P-R/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.694111.390.93915.2015.379木星族
73P-S/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.693411.051.0225.6466.088木星族
73P-T/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.711911.510.93935.5825.888木星族
73P-U/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.689411.360.93945.1095.26木星族
73P-V/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.693511.650.91225.045.134木星族
73P-W/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.697611.420.93915.2715.472木星族
73P-X/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.694811.40.93915.2145.396木星族
73P-Y/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.719511.560.93925.7576.127木星族
73P-Z/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.693411.350.9425.2025.385木星族
73P-AA/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.680611.30.93934.9435.044木星族
73P-AB/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.691211.370.93925.1445.305木星族
73P-AC/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.695411.410.9395.2265.412木星族
73P-AD/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.693411.370.94075.1955.373木星族
73P-AE/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.696711.410.93915.2545.449木星族
73P-AF/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.676311.240.94124.8744.958木星族
73P-AG/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.695811.410.9395.2345.423木星族
73P-AH/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.693411.330.9435.2075.393木星族
73P-AI/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.698311.430.93895.2845.489木星族
73P-AJ/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.800212.150.93618.43410.14木星族
73P-AK/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.693411.430.93775.1785.348木星族
73P-AL/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.699811.440.93885.3165.531木星族
73P-AM/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.693411.540.93095.1415.29木星族
73P-AN/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.694811.410.9395.2135.396木星族
73P-AO/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.693811.330.94085.2035.385木星族
73P-AP/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.701411.470.93875.355.575木星族
73P-AQ/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.695911.410.9395.2375.426木星族
73P-AR/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.695811.410.93925.2365.425木星族
73P-AS/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.70111.460.93885.345.563木星族
73P-AT/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.686911.330.93965.0635.2木星族
73P-AU/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.692811.380.93935.1765.347木星族
73P-AV/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.693411.40.9395.1865.359木星族
73P-AW/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.677311.240.94034.8874.974木星族
73P-AX/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.692511.430.9385.1625.327木星族
73P-AY/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.675111.230.94024.8474.923木星族
73P-AZ/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.675111.220.94034.8474.923木星族
73P-BA/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.682411.270.94024.9815.095木星族
73P-BB/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.682411.190.94244.9935.112木星族
73P-BC/Schwassmann-Wachmann0.700511.460.93885.335.549木星族
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262P/McNaught-Russell麦克诺特-罗素彗星0.815429.081.2812.5918.27木星族
263P/Gibbs吉布斯3号彗星0.58714.471.2514.8085.273木星族
264P/Larsen0.373825.152.4375.3477.678木星族
265P/LINEAR林尼尔彗星0.64614.691.5057.0018.771木星族
266P/Christensen克里斯坦森12号彗星0.34043.4292.3284.7316.631恩克族
267P/LONEOS0.59335.3691.3385.2415.967木星族
268P/Bernardi0.480115.642.3486.6859.599木星族
269P/Jedicke0.43396.6124.0810.3419.35木星族
270P/Gehrels盖勒尔斯4号彗星0.46772.8593.5949.9117.55木星族
271P/van Houten-Lemmon万豪敦-莱蒙彗星0.38996.8564.2529.68718.4木星族
272P/NEAT尼特彗星0.452518.282.4386.4679.395木星族
273P/Pons-Gambart0.9751136.40.810464.27185.6哈雷族
274P/Tombaugh-Tenagra0.440715.842.4426.2899.121木星族
275P/Hermann0.713921.571.6499.8813.84木星族
276P/Vorobjov0.268914.53.9236.80812.43木星族
277P/LINEAR林尼尔彗星0.503616.731.9195.8127.6木星族
278P/McNaught麦克诺特9号彗星0.43456.6872.0885.2967.095木星族
279P/La Sagra0.39945.0552.1485.0046.761木星族
280P/Larsen0.418111.782.6256.3989.584木星族
281P/MOSS0.17364.7214.0185.70610.72木星族
282P/2003 BM800.18865.813.455.0538.77主带彗星
283P/Spacewatch0.485614.462.1276.1458.412木星族
284P/McNaught麦克诺特10号彗星0.376611.862.2895.0557.037木星族
285P/LINEAR林尼尔彗星0.620924.51.717.3139.583木星族
286P/Christensen克里斯坦森3号彗星0.425217.042.3675.8678.354木星族
287P/Christensen克里斯坦森9号彗星0.271216.323.045.3028.518木星族
288P/2006 VW1390.20113.2412.4353.665.32主带彗星
289P/Blanpain宝珀彗星0.67585.9320.99875.1625.406木星族
290P/J?ger耶格彗星0.64719.072.15510.0515.08木星族
291P/NEAT尼特彗星0.42865.9472.6056.5139.735木星族
292P/Li李彗星0.586824.322.5359.73515.2木星族
293P/Spacewatch0.41939.0682.115.1576.925木星族
294P/LINEAR林尼尔彗星0.594519.091.2985.1035.726木星族
295P/LINEAR林尼尔彗星0.614821.12.0598.63112.36木星族
296P/Garradd0.476625.21.8325.176.551木星族
297P/Beshore0.308610.262.4094.5596.503恩克族
298P/Christensen克里斯坦森15号彗星0.41248.0222.0514.936.52木星族
299P/Catalina-PANSTARRS0.281910.483.145.6069.145木星族
300P/Catalina卡特林那3号彗星0.69355.6910.8264.5634.423木星族
301P/LINEAR-NEAT林尼尔-尼特彗星0.587410.622.3469.02713.56木星族
302P/Lemmon-PANSTARRS0.23046.0373.2845.2498.813木星族
303P/NEAT尼特彗星0.51047.0682.4857.66611.43木星族
304P/Ory0.57382.7551.3825.1045.841木星族
305P/Skiff斯基夫3号彗星0.696111.521.4047.8379.932木星族
306P/LINEAR林尼尔彗星0.59838.3641.2474.9615.468木星族
307P/LINEAR林尼尔彗星0.67474.4251.8899.72513.99木星族
308P/Lagerkvist-Carsenty0.36354.8354.2549.11317.28木星族
309P/LINEAR林尼尔彗星0.606717.661.7517.1529.391木星族
310P/Hill希尔2号彗星0.424613.182.3985.9368.507木星族
311P/PANSTARRS泛星彗星0.11534.9681.9362.4413.238恩克族
312P/NEAT尼特彗星0.434419.861.9494.9446.398木星族
313P/Gibbs吉布斯16号彗星0.242410.972.3913.9215.606恩克族
314P/Montani0.41783.994.21710.2719.49木星族
315P/LONEOS0.509820.122.3767.31810.67木星族
316P/LONEOS-Christensen0.16649.8833.6085.0489.004木星族
317P/WISE0.591110.671.1974.6595.01木星族
318P/McNaught-Hartley麦克诺特-哈特雷彗星0.669317.622.51412.6920.96木星族
319P/Catalina-McNaught卡特林那-麦克诺特彗星0.665615.081.1945.9476.747木星族
320P/McNaught麦克诺特2号彗星0.68254.8930.98575.2245.471木星族
321P/SOHO0.981120.080.045894.8053.777木星族
322P/SOHOSOHO2号彗星0.978812.630.053384.9783.99木星族
323P/SOHO0.98166.2460.047945.1744.219木星族
324P/La Sagra0.153721.42.6223.5755.455恩克族
325P/Yang-Gao杨-高彗星0.62116.161.2965.5436.323木星族
326P/Hill希尔4号彗星0.31822.4712.7775.3698.219木星族
327P/Van Ness0.564136.281.5515.5656.711木星族
328P/LONEOS-Tucker0.551917.711.886.5118.593木星族
329P/LINEAR-Catalina林尼尔-卡特林那0.679621.451.6648.72411.84木星族
330P/Catalina卡特林那1号卫星0.5515.562.96310.216.89木星族

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